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Term Oceanography

Branch of geography that studies all the biological, chemical and physical processes that occur in the seas and oceans. The term was used for the first time in 1584 in the French language, and was subsequently used in 1880 in German, appearing around that same period in English and Spanish. There are five main branches of oceanography: physical, chemical, biological, geological and meteorological.

Branches of Oceanography

Biological Oceanography

Considers aspects related to the knowledge and understanding of the biological systems and processes of the sea. Its essential aspects are the structure of ecosystems and the biological flow of electric energy and matter in relation to different natural and artificial environmental factors. It also takes into account ecological aspects of marine life in open oceans, coastal zones and estuaries.

Physical Oceanography

Refers to the comprehension and prediction of the physical processes that occur in the sea, such as mixture, dispersion, currents, tides and swell.

Geological Oceanography

Studies the solid part of the earth's surface covered by seawater, oceanic islands and coastal zones. It also includes the study of coastal processes, continental margins, oceanic basins, sea floor sediments and the Earth’s crust.

Meteorological Oceanography

Dedicated to the study of the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean.

Chemical Oceanography

Researches the chemical composition of sea water and its components, and the effects of biological, geological, and physical processes on the chemistry of seawater and sea pollution.

Topic  Environmental educationResources coastal / marineSoil and waterGeologyHydrology